Corn dodgers are a type of traditional cornbread that were commonly eaten on the American frontier, particularly in the southern United States. They are similar to corncakes and johnny cakes that Laura also writes about. While the names can sometimes be used interchangeably, it could be Caroline did slightly different preparations for each of them, as all three are mentioned specifically in the Little House books.
The Ingalls family used cornmeal regularly in their cooking, so it is likely that Caroline made each in slightly different ways. The corncakes were mentioned specifically when they were travelling west in a covered wagon, so it is likely those did not have milk or eggs, while the ones she made while living in a house might have used either or both.
Cornmeal based items are a very common staple on the frontier because of its lower cost and weight.
The Little House cookbook features a recipe for corn dodgers.